The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States. It has to promote public health and ensure that all human and veterinary drugs and foods are safe for consumption. It examines foods and drugs, approves the ones that comply with its requirements, and enforces corrective measures for non-compliance.
Now, how much does it cost to get FDA approval?
In answering the question, how much does it cost to get FDA approval? It is essential to note that there is no fixed cost for all FDA approvals. The cost depends on several factors. Also, there are several aspects to the process for obtaining approval, and all these aspects come with varying costs.
What Does The FDA Do?
The initial aim of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was to detect and restrict the sale of drugs and foods that were not correctly labeled. However, as the years went by, the scope of its power began to expand. It has grown to ensure that foods, drugs, cosmetics, and all medical devices used by Americans are safe for their consumption.
The agency is responsible for inspecting the production of food and drugs. It formulates policies that manufacturers of drugs and food items must comply with in developing their products. It also examines medical devices and ventures into research for new pieces of equipment used for monitoring human and animal health. Where it discovers an unsafe drug or food in the market, it recalls such.
One of its concerns is to ensure that the level of radiation produced by medical devices and other devices used by Americans is safe for their health. Thus, the FDA has to approve devices like X-ray machines, ultrasound, and laser devices. It is after the approval of these devices that its distribution can commence.
The scope of its powers does not only apply to products and devices produced in America. It also covers imported goods into the country. Thus, imported foods and drugs that are not approved by the FDA cannot find itself in circulation in the United States.
The Legal And Institutional Framework Of The FDA
The Federal Food and Drug Administration as created in the year 1906. Its creation was a result of the Pure Food and Drugs Act. The Government of the United States passed the Act in a bid to control the quality of drugs and food that manufacturers made available for public consumption.
The provisions of the Act focuses on restricting the manufacturers of these products from distributing wrongly labeled products in the market. It was a problem that was prevalent back then. Manufacturers were in the habit of adding ingredients that were not acceptable; however, the label on the products would not indicate the presence of these ingredients. That way, consumers were misled into buying products that contained ingredients they wouldn’t ordinarily buy.
The head of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the Commissioner of Food and Drugs. The President of the United States of America is the person responsible for appointing the Commissioner. However, the appointment is subject to the consent and approval of the Senate.
From the inception of the FDA, its commissioners were usually medical doctors. However, this is not a statutory requirement. It is a matter of practice over the years.
The Processes For Obtaining An FDA Approval
Obtaining the approval of the FDA is an essential need for manufacturers of food, drugs, and medical devices. It is also vital for the development of new drugs. It is because where the FDA has not approved a new drug or food product, the manufacturers cannot begin to distribute it in the market.
When a company is about to manufacture a new drug, it has to go into preclinical testing first. After the preclinical testing in the laboratory, and it discovers that the drug is good enough, the company will apply to the FDA by filing an Investigative New Drug Application (IND). The Manufacturers can proceed with the development of the drug only and where the FDA and an Institutional Review Board approves the IND. The Institutional Review Board must act within the regulations of the FDA; otherwise, its approval will not be valid.
The clinical trials consist of three phases. The first phase of it takes about one year. During this phase, they use volunteers to test whether the drug is safe for human consumption. In the second phase, the drug is tested on volunteer patients to see whether the drug is effective and also to measure how effective it is. The third phase deals with monitoring patients that the drugs were administered to, to check how effective it is and if there are any side effects and reactions to it.
At the end of the third phase, the company is to file a New Drug Application (NDA) of about 100,000 pages to the FDA. The FDA considers and approves it if satisfied. This process alone can take up to two years plus before the FDA will approve it. After the FDA has approved the NDA, the company can start distributing the drugs. During distribution, it continues to observe and monitor the reactions to the drugs and report the same to the FDA.
How Do FDA Approvals Affect The Industry?
The FDA affects the food and drug industry significantly. Its endorsement on products takes away the doubts in the minds of Americans and assures them of the safety of the products they are consuming.
Also, the information released by the FDA forms the basis of investment decisions for investors in food and drug companies. It is because the data tends to show the metrics for how well a company will grow soon. In this manner, the FDA influences how the activities on the stock market play out.
The FDA is an agency that has the responsibility to regulate the food and drugs available to the public. Its duty is crucial in determining the easy availability and accessibility of these products in the market. There could be a delay with the release of certain products due to pending approvals from the FDA.
The Cost Of Obtaining FDA Approval
The cost of obtaining FDA approval keeps changing from year to year. As a result, it is not easy to state with certainty what it will cost per time to get approval. Also, the cost varies depending on the components that make up the product. It also depends on whether or not the product needs clinical and other forms of testing.
The cost of testing medical devices, for instance, could depend on whether the device needs pre-market testing or not. It also depends on if there is a need for pre-market notification.
Is FDA Approval Necessary?
The duties carried out by the FDA are essential and necessary for the safety of human and animal lives in society. Without the FDA, companies will produce and market all kinds of foods and drugs that are harmful to public health. However, the FDA prevents this by setting standards for manufacturers to comply with before they can release their products to the market.
The approval of the FDA also helps to check that the manufacturers carry out all the necessary tests to ascertain the right dosage and use of each product. This way, consumers are knowledgeable about using them correctly and in ways that achieve the purpose of its creation.
The FDA undertakes rigorous processes to examine the information about products that manufacturers give out as they seek approval. Not just that, they make the information available to the public at no cost. They do this to allow enlightened and interested members of the public to examine the same, and where they discover any issues, it is easier to bring their attention to it.
Effects Of Not Obtaining An FDA Approval
When a manufacturer of drugs or food presents a new product to the public without obtaining the approval of the FDA, it amounts to conduct prohibited under the Act establishing the FDA.
Also, where certain products do not comply with its standards, the FDA can recall these products from the market. However, the FDA encourages the manufacturers to obtain FDA approval to secure the safety of members of the public.
The FDA provides a comprehensive list of all products approved by it. It is to make sure that they guide consumers on the products that bear their approval. The database contains information about the approved drugs as well as the recommended use for them.
When a manufacturer is about to commence the process of developing a new drug or food product, one of the questions that he would be considering is how much does it cost to get FDA approval. It is an important issue to consider since it forms part of the total cost of producing and bringing the product to the market. Thus, it is crucial to make all the necessary inquiries with the FDA. It is meant to prepare you for the necessary cost and also to get the required documents ready.